Targeted Studies

Lingzhi inhibits cancer cells

Experimental Oncology, 2006. Downloadable PDF here.


Anti-inflammatory Activity

Chemical Biodiversity, 2007, article here



Lingzhi polysaccharides increase effects of anticancer drugs against bladder carcinoma cells.

from: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2010
The authors use extractions of Ganoderma spores to show that a polysaccharide from Lingzhi caused cancer cell division arrest.

The dual roles of Ganoderma antioxidants on urinary cell DNA under carcinogenic attack.

from: Journal of Ethno-pharmacology 2008
Study showing that anti-oxidants in Ganoderma have anti-cancer protective effect on bladder cell DNA.

Telomerase anti-aging effects by Ganoderma lucidum on malignant human urinary cells

from: Nutrition & Cancer 2008
Study linking Ganoderma extracts to killing off bladder cancer cells.

Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibit growth in bladder cancer cells in vitro

From: Cancer Letters 2004
Experiments reveal that Ganoderma spores can inhibit the growth of human bladder cells.


Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides accelerates wound healing in type 1 diabetes.

from: Cell Physiology and Biochemistry, 2011
Lingzhi improved the speed of healing in wounds in diabetic mice.

Anti-hyperglycemic Effect of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides on Diabetic Mice

from: International Journal of Molecular Science 2011
Indications that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides have an positive effect on diabetes.

Hypoglycemic effects of Ganoderma lucidum water-extract in obese/diabetic mice

from: Phytomedicine. 2009
This study demonstrate that Lingzhi consumption can provide beneficial effects in treating type 2 diabetes.


Improved memory effect of preadministration with Lingzhi.

from: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 2012
Ganoderma lucidum markedly improved spatial learning and memory; the study suggests Lingzhi may be useful in prevention of Alzheimer’s disease.

Lingzhi extracts may be therapeutic strategy for Huntington’s disease.

from: Neuropharmacology. 2012
Ganoderma lucidum’s active constituents have potent effects on markers of Huntington’s disease.

Ganoderma lucidum Protects Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration.

from: Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine 2011
Abundant evidence shows that neuroinflammation participates in Parkinson’s disease. Ganoderma lucidum extract showed that they “significantly prevent” inflammation from occurring.

Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on the activities of mitochondrial dehydrogenases

from: Experimental Gerontology 2009
Study concludes that Lingzhi extracts may improve the function of mitochondria, suggesting possible application against neurodegenerative diseases.


Lingzhi Improves Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients

from: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012
This clinical trial shows that Ganoderma relieved fatigue, anxiety and depression brought on by endocrine therapy. Also helpful effects on the immune system of the patients with no side- effects.

Ganoderic acid induces DNA damage in human breast cancer cells

from: Fitoterapia, 2012 (a Journal dedicated to medicinal plants)
Reveals that the active molecule in Lingzhi is a triterpernoid called ganoderic acid DM, which inhibits breast cancer cells. The compound blocked the cell division of the cancer cell, causing cancer cell death.

Lingzhi inhibits cancer cell growth in inflammatory breast cancer

from: Nutrition and Cancer, 2011
This study shows that Ganoderma spore extract selectively kills metastatic inflammatory breast cancer cells, and with no effect on non-cancerous breast epithelial cells.

Lingzhi’s positive effect on breast cancer cells

from: International Journal of Oncology 2007
Shows that Ganoderma extracts inhibited cancerous growth of breast cancer cells, and migration and adhesion. The effects were even greater when combined into a green tea extract.

Lingzhi inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells

from: International Journal of Oncology 2006
The authors show that Lingzhi can block specific biochemical pathways in breast cancer cells, resulting in cancer cell arrest.


Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of ganoderic acid on human cervical cancer cells

from: Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology 2012
Study shows that several derivatives of ganoderic acid—the main triterpenes in Lingzhi with anti-cancer properties—induce apoptosis (death of cells) in human cervical cancer cells.

Ganoderic acid induces kills human cervical carcinoma cells 

from: Phytomedicine 2011
Two ganoderic acid isomers (structural variants of ganoderic acid) caused cell division arrest in human cancer cells.  The two isomers also induced apoptosis in the cancer cells.


Triterpenes from Lingzhi suppress growth of colon cancer cells.

from: International Journal of Oncology 2011
Shows that a triterpenes from Lingzhi ( Ganodermanontriol) stops growth of human colon cancer cells.

Lingzhi important in inhibiting growth of human colon cancer cells.

from: Phytomedicine 2011
This study shows that Lingzhi could inhibit growth of human colon cancer cells.

Ganoderic acid induces death in human colon carcinoma cells.

from: Process Biochemistry 2011
Another triterpene molecule of Ganoderma, called Ganoderic acid ME, causes cell death in human colon cancer cells.This is a second triterpene with anti-cancer activity.

Effects of Ganoderic acid Me on drug resistant colon cancer cells.

Process Biochemistry 2011
Lingzhi extracts effectively reverse multi-drug resistance in colon cancer cells.

Triterpenes From Lingzhi Induce cell breakdown in Colon Cancer.

from: Nutrition & Cancer 2010
The authors show that a triterpene extract from Ganoderma inhibits human colon cancer cell growth by blocking cell division. They conclude and suggest the use of Ganoderma as a treatment of colon cancer.

Lingzhi mycelia suppresses the development of colon tumors.

from: Hiroshima Journal of Medical Science 2010
Clinical study showing that Ganoderma water extract reduced size and number of colorectal tumors over 12 months.

Ganoderic acid  induces arrest in human tumor cells.

from: Process Biochemistry, 2009
Lingzhi was found to possess remarkable cytotoxicity on highly metastatic lung cancer and colon cancer cells.

Lingzhi shown to have powerful immune-enhancing effects with advanced cancer.

from: International Immunopharmacology 2006
Clinical study with advanced colorectal cancer patients over a 12 week period given 5.4g of Ganoderma per day.  41 out of the 47 patients showed increases in immune cells (lymphocytes), suggesting Ganoderma may have potential immuno-modulating effect in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

Lingzhi extracts inhibit colorectal cancer cell growth via cell cycle arrest 

from: Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2008
This study shows that Ganoderma extracts block cell division in human colorectal cancer cells.  Also that the extract caused tumor shrinkage in cancerous mice.

Lingzhi extract inhibits proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells

from: Experimental Oncology 2006
A team at the University of Chicago exposed human colorectal cancer cells to a polysaccharide and a triterpene extract of the mushroom called Ganoderma lucidum. They found this had a significant anti-proliferation effect on the cancer cells.  This is a downloadable PDF.


Hashimoto’s (aka lymphocytic thyroiditis) is an autoimmune in which the thyroid gland is overwhelmed by a variety of antibody-mediated immune processes.

Lingzhi found helpful in dealing with hypothyroid

from The Women’s Wellness Series
Linghzi is one of most suggested plants in TCM in thyroid issues, mainly because of its ability to act as an adaptogen and normalizing organ function.


Lingzhi ameliorates mitochondrial damage in heart attacks.

from: International Journal of Cardiology 2013
The study concluded that heart issues are markedly declined by the administration Lingzhi by preventing the decline of antioxidant status and by directly scavenging the free radicals.

Lingzhi enhances activities of heart mitochondrial enzymes and respiratory complexes.

from: Biogerontology, 2009
The results of the study revealed that G. lucidum is effective to ameliorate the age associated decline of cellular energy status.

Antioxidant activity of  Lingzhi in acute ethanol-induced heart toxicity. 

from: Kar-Lok Wong et al, 2005
The hot water extract of the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum was shown to have anti-oxidative effect against heart toxicity. It concluded that Lingzhi may protect the heart from alcohol-induced damage.

A study of lingzhi extract in patients with coronary heart disease.

from: International Journal of Medical Mushrooms 2004
The polysaccharides and triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum have shown to give “significantly improved” relief of symptoms in those with chest pains, palpitation, angina pectoris, and shortness of breath.


PubMed, 2009, article here.

PubMed, 2004, immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum here.


Ganoderma Lucidum has traditionally been used as a nerve-calming agent (called “An-Shen effect) for treatment of restlessness, anxiety, and insomnia.

Extract of Ganoderma lucidum prolongs sleep timeJ Ethnopharmacol. (2012)

Extract of Ganoderma lucidum potentiates sleepPharmacol Biochem Behav. (2007)

Effects of Lingzhi on Improved sleep  and increased immunity 2003

Sleep-promoting effects of Ganoderma extracts. (1988)



Ganoderma extract prevents oxidative damage in human kidney cells. 

from: Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006
Results suggest that Ganoderma significantly reduces oxidative damages and apoptosis (cell death) in human  epithelial cells.


Ganoderma lucidum induced apoptosis in NB4 human leukemia cells 

from: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2010
The authors investigate how Ganoderma extract leads to leukemia cell apoptosis (cell death).  These show that the extract causes reduction in the levels of leukemia cells, thereby causing them to die.

Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Induce Macrophage-Like Differentiation in Human Leukemia.

from: Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2009
Results show that Ganoderma polysaccharides can cause human leukemia cells to differentiate into macrophages, thus ending uncontrolled cell division. They suggest that the Ganoderma polysaccharide F3 can bring cancer to an end whether by cell differentiation or cell death.

Ganoderma polysaccharides can induce human leukemia cells into cells with immuno-stimulatory function

from: Journal of Hematology & Oncology 2008
Authors showed that preparations of Ganoderma polysaccharides could cause human leukemia cells to differentiate into other cells with immunotherapeutic activities.  Somehow, compounds in the Ganoderma re-directed the leukemia cells to become cells able to enhance the function of the immune system.

Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells 

from: Leukemia Research, 2006
Using 26 human cancer cell lines, the authors show that Ganoderma extracts cause many of them to stop dividing.  Leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines were most sensitive to the Ganoderma extracts.

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in human leukemia cells: from gene expression to network construction  

from: BioMed Central Genomics, 2007
Results show that a polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma spores, called F3 is responsible for anti-tumor activity.  F3 binds to the surface of human leukemia cells and triggers apoptosis (cell death) in them.


Inhibitory Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on Human Hepatoma Cells in Cells

from: Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemisty 2009
This study shows that Ganoderma extracts block specific signaling pathways inside human liver cancer cells.  Also that the extract reduced the occurrence of cancer in mice given human cancer cells.

Effects of Ganoderma lucidum spores on HepG2 cells proliferation and growth cycle

from: Zhong Yao Cai 2008
Ganoderma spores inhibit human hepatoma tumor cell proliferation in G2 phase of cell cycle, and in high doses stops metastasis.

Antihepatoma activity of the acid and neutral components from Ganoderma lucidum. 

from: Phytotherapy Research 2012

The polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum: Are they always inhibitors on human hepatocarcinoma cells? 

from: Carbohydrate Polymer. 2012

Free radical scavenging and mitochondrial antioxidant activities of Reishi- Ganoderma lucidum

from: Journal of Basic Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology 2011

Post-treatment of Ganoderma lucidum reduced liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide in mice. 

from: Phytotherapy Research 2010
Ganoderma lucidum protects liver mitochondrial oxidative stress

Liver-protecting effects of Ganoderma lucidum peptides against liver injury. 

from: Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2008
Results of this study revealed that ganoderma extracts could afford significant protection in the alleviation of liver damage or injury.


Ganoderma new anti-aging ergosterols from spores of the medicinal mushroom. 

from: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2011
Two new anti-aging compounds, ganodermasides C and D, were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum extract. Both of them significantly extended the replicative lifespan of a yeast strain.

The lifespan-promoting effect of acetic acid and Reishi (aka Lingzhi) polysaccharides. 

from: Bio-organic Medical Chemistry 2010
Various health-food supplements were screened to evaluate their effects on longevity. Among the substances tested were Reishi polysaccharides. 15 differentially expressed proteins involved in the lifespan-promoting activity were identified.


Lingzhi arrests growth of lung cancer cells proliferation via the ribosomal protein pathway

from: Carcinogenesis 2011
The authors show that a protein termed LZ-8 in Ganoderma, rather than a polysaccharide or a triterpene, blocks growth of human lung cancer cells. They suggest that this protein pushes cancer cells into apoptosis.

Effect of Ganoderma on drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant small-cell lung carcinoma cells.

from: Cancer Letters 2009
Multi drug resistance is a major problem in lung cancer. The results from this study shows that Ganoderma is cytotoxic to both drug-sensitive and drug-resistance small cell lung cancer cells.

Enhancement of NK cells activity involved in the anti-tumor effect of ganoderic acid.

from: International Immunopharacology 2007
Ganoderic acid Me is a triterpenoid purified from Ganoderma lucidum, the most widely used herb for cancer treatment and prevention in east Asia. Study shows that Ganoderma is the chief inhibitory molecules in a human lung cancer cell assay.

Ganoderic acid induces mitochondria mediated apoptosis in lung cancer cells 

from: Life Sciences 2006
The findings show that Ganoderma markedly induced apoptosis of metastatic lung tumor cells.  It did this through intrinsic pathway related to mitochondral dysfunction.

A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study of Ganoderma lucidum

from: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2003
68 patients with advanced lung cancer were given Ganoderma.  Compared to the control group, after 12 weeks these patients showed a significant increase in lymphocyte mitogenic reactivity (increase in natural killer cells).


Lymphoma-killing action of Ganoderma lucidum on interleukin 3 dependent lymphoma DA-1 cells. 

from: Phytotherapy Research 2011
Results showed a clear indication of induction of apoptosis (cancer cell death) in human lymphoma cells by compounds present in Ganoderma lucidum

Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells

from: Leukemia Research, 2006
Using 26 human cancer cell lines, the authors show that Ganoderma extracts cause many of them to stop dividing.  The Leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines were very sensitive to the Ganoderma extracts.


Ganoderma polysaccharides antagonize the suppression on lymphocytes.

from: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2011
The authors show that Ganoderma polysaccharides help immune cells help detect melanoma.

Promoting Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides on Lymphocytes

from: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 2010
The immune system in patients with cancer often fails to control tumor growth because of deficient immunogenicity.  Ganoderma polysaccarides are shown to activate lymphocyte proliferation in melanoma.

Multiple Myeloma

Molecule called Ergosterol peroxide (EP) found in Ganoderma inhibits signaling process in multiple myeloma.

from: BMC Cancer 2012
A molecule called Ergosterol peroxide (EP) found in Ganoderma, inhibits a cellular signaling process known to be linked with multiple myeloma cells. Lingzhi may be a potent cancer preventive for treatment of multiple myeloma.

Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia and lymphoma cells

from: Leukemia Research,  2006
The authors show that Ganoderma extracts cause leukemia cells to stop dividing.  Leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines were most sensitive to the Ganoderma extracts.

Ovarian Cancer

Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells.

from: International Journal of Oncology, 2011
Ganoderma arrests cell division in epithelial ovarian cancer cells, at G2/M phase of cell cycle. Overall, the findings suggest that Ganoderma lucidum exerts multiple anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and can enhance the sensitivity of the cancers cells to cisplatin (chemotherapy drug)

Modulatory effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on ovarian cancer

from: Carbohydrate Polymers, 2009
When Ganoderma polysaccharides were fed to rats with ovarian cancer, the levels of antioxidants in the blood increased, significantly reducing MDA production and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity.  The authors speculate that the antioxidants are part of the anti-tumor effects of the spores.


Lingzhi polysaccharides on pancreatic islets damage

from: Life Sciences 2003
Results show that Ganoderma polysaccharides protects against free radical damage in pancreas cells. One of the mechanisms is through its scavenging ability to protect the pancreative islets from free radical damage.

Prostate Cancer

Ganoderic Acid: An Alternative for the Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer

from: The Open Prostate Cancer Journal 2010
This is a review of the effect of ganoderic acid (from Ganoderma) on human prostate cancer cells.  The summary is that GA is toxic to the cancer cells, whether they need male hormones to grow or not.  The GA also reduced the spread of the prostate cancer cells to the bone.

Ganoderic acid in Lingzhi shows to be anti-androgenic osteoclastogenesis inhibitor

from: The Open Bioactive Compounds Journal 2009
Ganoderic acid, a triterpene from Ganoderma spores, inhibits prostate cancer cells.  The authors show that GA block the receptors on the cancer cells for male hormones, so that the cells cannot divide. Prostate cancer has a high incidence of bone metastasis. Ganoderic acid DM can block osteoclastogenesis.

Ganoderma lucidum activities in prostate cancer cells

from: International Journal of Oncology 2007
Ganoderma spore extracts trigger apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.  The extracts activate caspases in the cancer cells.  These are proteases that bring about cell disassembly in cancer cells (apoptosis).

Ganoderma lucidum suppresses prostate cancer cells 

from: Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communication 2005
The authors show that Ganoderma extracts block the development of blood vessels needed to supply prostate cancer cells with oxygen and nutrients, causing the prostate cancer to die.  They also reveal that the extracts do this by inhibiting a key signaling molecule in the prostate cancer cells themselves.


Ganoderma Lucidum has traditionally been used as a nerve-calming agent (called “An-Shen effect) for treatment of restlessness, anxiety, and insomnia.

Extract of Ganoderma lucidum prolongs sleep timeJ Ethnopharmacol. (2012)

Extract of Ganoderma lucidum potentiates sleepPharmacol Biochem Behav. (2007)

Effects of Lingzhi on Improved sleep  and increased immunity 2003

Sleep-promoting effects of Ganoderma extracts. (1988)

Stomach Cancer

Effects of Lingzhi polysaccharides on the immune functions in cancer patients

from: Immunology Investigations 2003
34 patients with advanced stage cancer were given Ganoderma for 12 weeks.  Results showed significantly enhanced immune responses  which ordinarily are reduced or damaged in patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy.

Lingzhi induces cell death in gastric cancer cells.

from: Oncology Report 2012
A protein in Ganoderma induces cell death in human gastric cancer cell lines.

Extracts of Lingzhi deactivate cancer cell activities in Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells.

from: Journal of Acupuncture & Meridian Studies 2011
Ganoderma extracts suppress invasiveness of human stomach adenocarcinoma cells.

Lingzhi in human gastric carcinoma cells

from: Journal of Acupuncutre & Meridian Studies 2010
Ganoderma extracts trigger apoptosis in human stomach cancer cells in culture.

Regression of gastric lymphoma accompanied by immunomodulatory effect of Lingzhi

Report of a complete regression of a high-grade lymphoma likely due to Ganoderma stimulating t-cell production.

Acute Leukemia (2004) – patients took high doses of Ganoderma while undergoing chemotherapy.  All the patients experienced changes in their white blood cell count, haemoglobin and platelet counts which were very significantly increased after 3 months of treatment.

Throat Cancer (2004) – patients with stage 3 cancer experienced complete remission of their cancer (significant tumor shrinkage after 40 days of combined chemotherapy and Ganoderma and complete regression after 90 days)  Reduced side-effects were observed regarding nausea/vomiting and pain and increased energy, sleep and appetite were also observed.

Advanced Lung Cancer (Massey University, New Zealand 2004) – 68 patients with advanced lung cancer were given Ganoderma for 12 weeks.  Compared to the control group, after 12 weeks these patients showed a significant increase in natural killer cells.